Category Archives: Structure Reuse

The TWA Hotel Turns an Abandoned Airport Terminal Into a Midcentury Dream – Dwell

Living Room, Ceiling Lighting, Concrete Floor, Sectional, and Sofa This space was originally outfitted by acclaimed Parisian industrial designer Raymond Loewy, the mind behind the 1955 Coca-Cola contour bottle, the 1959 TWA twin globes logo, the 1963 Studebaker Avanti, and the 1962 Air Force One livery.

This space was originally outfitted by acclaimed Parisian industrial designer Raymond Loewy, the mind behind the 1955 Coca-Cola contour bottle, the 1959 TWA twin globes logo, the 1963 Studebaker Avanti, and the 1962 Air Force One livery. Max Touhey

To access the guest rooms, patrons enter through space-age flight tubes—which you may remember from the film Catch Me If You Can. Clean lines meet a touch of glam in the rooms, which feature leather upholstery; a pop of primary color; Hollywood-style vanities; and custom walnut, brass, and glass details.

Source: The TWA Hotel Turns an Abandoned Airport Terminal Into a Midcentury Dream – Dwell

Building the Blair Lofts | Camas-Washougal Post-Record

Mark Nichols, a Portland-based remodeler, works on framing the second floor walls of the Blair Building in downtown Washougal, in October 2016. The upper level of the historic building on Main Street has been transformed into four studio apartments with modern amenities. (Contributed photo courtesy of Heidi Kramer)

Local couple Bruce and Heidi Kramer spent three years rebuilding the second floor of a nearly 100-year-old structure known as the Blair Building.

Source: Building the Blair Lofts | Camas-Washougal Post-Record

Nicholas Grimshaw interview on reusing buildings and micro homes

“The most destructive thing is to demolish a building” says Nicholas Grimshaw

Photo is by Esto

Grimshaw’s new Via Verde development will also offer adaptable homes. Photo is by Esto

“I’ve got very passionate about it lately. I’ve even suggested that when architects submit a building for planning permission they should be asked to suggest ways in which it can be used for alternative things in the future,” he continued. “The more of that that goes on in the world, the better place the world will be.”

Source: Nicholas Grimshaw interview on reusing buildings and micro homes

Our Barns: Our Stories – A thesis on the Bradley-Craig barn – Stittsville Central – Local News, Events and Business

Bradley-Craig Barn on Hazeldean Road. Photo by Barry Gray.

(Photo: Barry Gray)

The passion for many in Stittsville to have the ‘Bradley-Craig Barn’ kept in place and integrated into a new subdivision can set tears flowing. To actually read this 52 page thesis and see how this heritage building has been thoroughly researched, with a re-purposed use being realistic, is what Stittsville residents have been pronouncing for many years.

Source: Our Barns: Our Stories – A thesis on the Bradley-Craig barn – Stittsville Central – Local News, Events and Business

The HMS Owl black kitchen by British Standard

The recently installed kitchen—in what had been the officer’s mess—is far from new looking. In keeping with the exterior, the couple went with a crepuscular matte charcoal for the cabinets, left the storm-ravaged brick walls exposed, and kept signs of 21st-century life largely under wraps.

Above: The recently installed kitchen—in what had been the officer’s mess—is far from new looking. In keeping with the exterior, the couple went with a crepuscular matte charcoal for the cabinets, left the storm-ravaged brick walls exposed, and kept signs of 21st-century life largely under wraps.

the HMS Owl, a World War II air squadron control tower, fit the bill: it had been left derelict for decades and Justin and Charlotte took on its restoration

Source: The HMS Owl black kitchen by British Standard

Century-old Properties in Newark’s ‘Billion Dollar Triangle’ to Get Face Lift | TAPinto

unnamed - Edited.jpg

Paramount Assets bought 36-40 Clinton St., pictured above, and 30-32 Clinton St.

We saw this as an excellent opportunity to reposition two historically significant assets to the benefit of both the City and residents alike.

Source: Century-old Properties in Newark’s ‘Billion Dollar Triangle’ to Get Face Lift | TAPinto

RXR Realty to work on reuse plan for mothballed ocean liner | Newsday

The SS United States, seen here on Jan

The SS United States, seen here on Jan 21, 2014 remains docked in Philadelphia for now. Photo Credit: Chris Ware

Uniondale-based RXR will work on an adaptive reuse plan and suitable site for the 990-foot ship that set trans-Atlantic speed records after its launch in 1952, but which has been deteriorating at a pier in Philadelphia since 1996.

Source: RXR Realty to work on reuse plan for mothballed ocean liner | Newsday

Ill wind blows good wood for Newport museum | Oregon ArtsWatch

The Pacific Maritime Heritage Center sits on a hill above Newport’s bayfront.

It wasn’t just the historical society that scored, so did the county. In what became the Pacific Maritime Heritage Center, it gained a museum, retained a piece of history, and saved a structure that otherwise might have faced demo crews.

Source: Ill wind blows good wood for Newport museum | Oregon ArtsWatch

Will Madam C.J. Walker’s Home Cultivate New Black Women Moguls?

Richelieu Dennis, founder and chairperson of Essence Ventures, attends the 2018 Essence Black Women In Hollywood Oscars Luncheon on March 1, 2018 in Beverly Hills, California; the rear view of the Villa Lewaro, the mansion of the country’s first self-made female millionaire, Madam Walker, is seen Oct. 19, 1998, in Irvington, N.Y.
Photo: Leon Bennett (Getty Images for Essence), Ed Bailey (AP Photo)

Villa Lewaro was a frequent meeting place for the leading lights of the Harlem Renaissance—but nearly 100 years later, Dennis hopes to honor the beauty mogul’s innovative and entrepreneurial spirit by transforming Walker’s historic estate into a training center and retreat “de­signed to sup­port black women en­tre­pre­neurs in their ef­forts to turn their ideas into flour­ish­ing en­ter­prises,” according to the Independent.

Source: Will Madam C.J. Walker’s Home Cultivate New Black Women Moguls?

A Creative Family Transform an Old Spanish Farmhouse Into an Incredible Home – Dwell

Living Room, Chair, Sofa, Coffee Tables, and Medium Hardwood Floor The 17th-century farmhouse is made entirely of natural stone.

Working together, the family revitalized the farmhouse with a floor plan that includes reception spaces, meeting rooms, art and design exhibition galleries, experimental rooms, living spaces, and areas that can be set up for photography shoots.

Source: A Creative Family Transform an Old Spanish Farmhouse Into an Incredible Home – Dwell

Jefferson University’s New Center Celebrates—and Studies—Modernism | Architectural Digest

Richard Neutra’s iconic Hassrick House

Richard Neutra’s iconic Hassrick House in East Falls, Pennsylvania Courtesy of Thomas Jefferson University

Opening in April, the Center for the Preservation of Modernism is a key facet of the school’s newly launched master of science program in historic preservation; the new degree program, which will debut next fall, will focus on preservation, restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive reuse of historic buildings and sites.

Source: Jefferson University’s New Center Celebrates—and Studies—Modernism | Architectural Digest

How saving Philly’s historic sacred spaces can make the city stronger | Opinion

CHRIS KENDIG

Enter “Infill Philadelphia: Sacred Places/Civic Spaces,” the exciting new partnership between Partners for Sacred Places and the Community Design Collaborative. Its purpose is to generate innovative design concepts and solutions for the re-activation of underutilized spaces in local historic sacred places.

Source: How saving Philly’s historic sacred spaces can make the city stronger | Opinion

Harvard’s HouseZero project wants to revolutionize green building – Curbed

The HouseZero project at Harvard retrofitted a pre-war home on campus, creating a model of energy efficiency. Michael Grimm

“We’re shattering the belief that you need to build new buildings to be efficient,” Ali Malkawi, a professor of architectural technology who leads the CGBC program, told Curbed. “We want to show how this can be replicated almost anywhere, and solve one of the world’s biggest energy problems, inefficient existing buildings.”

Source: Harvard’s HouseZero project wants to revolutionize green building – Curbed

Historic Tacoma Elks Lodge will reopen as a McMenamins complex in April – Curbed Seattle

Kathleen Nyberg/Courtesy of McMenamins

Opening in April as McMenamins Elks Temple, the historic building will become a 45-room hotel, a 700-capacity music venue, a game room, three restaurants, a brewery, and several small bars—including one hidden below the sidewalk. One cafe will have outdoor space along historic Tacoma plaza the Spanish Steps.

Source: Historic Tacoma Elks Lodge will reopen as a McMenamins complex in April – Curbed Seattle

Good bones are a good place to start for net zero carbon MacKimmie Complex in Calgary | TreeHugger

MacKimmie Block cladding

© DIALOG

Souleles also notes that “the bones of the building are really, really good.” You don’t often hear this; there is always an excuse, such as the floor plate isn’t efficient or the ceilings are too low. However, as embodied carbon gets recognized as an issue, these excuses don’t stand up to scrutiny – because, as we keep saying, the greenest building is the one already standing.

Source: Good bones are a good place to start for net zero carbon MacKimmie Complex in Calgary | TreeHugger

Symes Road Destructor transformed into a brewing ‘jewel’ – constructconnect.com

Symes Road Destructor transformed into a brewing ‘jewel’

STEVEN EVANS PHOTOGRAPHY — Junction Craft Brewing is now housed in a renovated industrial building in the Stockyards district of Toronto’s west end. The company’s 1,358-square-metre facility at 150 Symes Road contains a brewery, taproom, retail space and office space. The brewery project recently won an adaptive reuse award.

“Their work retained the stunning art deco design and industrial character of the site, while repurposing it for a technically demanding manufacturing system,” said the organization.

Source: Symes Road Destructor transformed into a brewing ‘jewel’ – constructconnect.com

A campaign aims to save the home of the Central Park architect

A campaign is running to save the abandoned home in Staten Island of the Central Park architect. Image: New York Landmark Conservancy

“We recognise the importance of restoring this landmark site so that it can eventually offer programs to New Yorkers and visitors alike,” says the Conservancy.

Source: A campaign aims to save the home of the Central Park architect

Inside Google’s Playa Vista Offices: Haunted Stairwells, Paper Airplane Pads | Hollywood Reporter

Courtesy of Google

As if that weren’t enough to draw your eyes upward, there are several dozen beautiful wooden “glu-lam” arches that climb the walls, which were built in 1943, when the hangar was originally created (the building was used by Howard Hughes to construct the H4 Hercules, known as the “Spruce Goose,” which famously flew only once for less than a minute).

Source: Inside Google’s Playa Vista Offices: Haunted Stairwells, Paper Airplane Pads | Hollywood Reporter

Brooklyn’s Domino Park blends industrial chic with careful pacing – Archpaper.com

The fog bridge connects the entire park. When the mist lifts, visitors can see the East River below. (Daniel Levin)

According to Lisa Switkin, senior principal at JCFO, “Integrating the artifact walk with custom furniture made from reclaimed wood from the Raw Sugar Warehouse creates a unique experience where people come into contact with remnants of the original refinery and have an up-close relationship with those artifacts.”

Source: Brooklyn’s Domino Park blends industrial chic with careful pacing – Archpaper.com

Historic building at Brooklyn Navy Yard to be restored as modern manufacturing space | 6sqft

building 127, brooklyn navy yard, adaptive reuse

Located on Morris Avenue between 3rd and 4th Streets, the three-story Building 127 was built to make boat parts for the Navy.

According to the corporation, the building’s ground and second floors, which has loading infrastructure, would be a good fit for a medium-to-large scale manufacturing company. With its super tall, vaulted ceiling, the third floor would be great for a design company looking for a showroom and space for prototyping.

Source: Historic building at Brooklyn Navy Yard to be restored as modern manufacturing space | 6sqft

Valuing older buildings: Architecture professor’s book argues for reuse rather than wrecking ball | UW News

“I was trained as both an architect and architectural historian,” Merlino says, “and have always been drawn to older buildings and the layered narrative of history they embody.” Her book, “Building Reuse: Sustainability, Preservation, and the Value of Design” was published this year by UW Press.

Source: Valuing older buildings: Architecture professor’s book argues for reuse rather than wrecking ball | UW News

Before & After: A Derelict Ambulance Station in East Sussex, Reimagined – Remodelista

Inside, a double-sided wood-burning stove stands on a large concrete plinth in the middle of the space, creating a central heat source and focal point. Medieval dwellings were often arranged around a central hearth, and Nowicka sees this is a nod to the far-reaching history of the area.

Above: Inside, a double-sided wood-burning stove stands on a large concrete plinth in the middle of the space, creating a central heat source and focal point. Medieval dwellings were often arranged around a central hearth, and Nowicka sees this is a nod to the far-reaching history of the area.

Original materials were repurposed throughout wherever possible. “The old existing roof was made water-tight, saving all the original tiles, including the moss that was growing on it,” explains Nowicka.

Source: Before & After: A Derelict Ambulance Station in East Sussex, Reimagined – Remodelista

Adaptive reuse project turns warehouse into an industrial-chic home | Inhabitat

kitchen with long black island, a small lounge sofa, a wood dining table and a large opening to an outdoor deck on the end wall

All of the renovated buildings retain parts of the original construction. In 102 The Mill, these deliberately exposed frameworks are complemented by industrial-inspired lighting fixtures and minimalist, streamlined furnishings. Timber floors and warm fabrics help imbue the former factory with a sense of cozy warmth.

Source: Adaptive reuse project turns warehouse into an industrial-chic home | Inhabitat – Green Design, Innovation, Architecture, Green Building

ENR California Best Projects 2018 Renovation/Restoration: Alcatraz Photo Studio | 2018-10-02 | Engineering News-Record

Alcatraz Photography Studio

The Alcatraz Photography Studio in Berkeley, Calif., transformed a century-old box of a building used as a Halloween costume store into an artistic space. PHOTO Billy Hustace Photography

The project team was encouraged by the client and designers to reuse and expose original building materials. The team preserved the wooden floor covered with colorful paint drips, giving the space a unique character. This sustainable approach was noticed by the judges, who appreciated the “simplicity, beauty and attention to detail” of the small project, noting that such renovation and adaptive reuse “could be considered a lost art.”

Source: ENR California Best Projects 2018 Renovation/Restoration: Alcatraz Photo Studio | 2018-10-02 | Engineering News-Record

How Adaptive Reuse is Helping Create the Senior Housing of Tomorrow – Senior Housing News

St. Charles Hospital in Aurora, Illinois, was a skilled nursing facility when it shut down in 2010, the same year the Art Deco building was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

With the senior population and demand for senior housing guaranteed to grow over the next 20 years, yesterday’s offices, hotels, schools and commercial buildings can be repurposed into the senior housing of tomorrow.

Source: How Adaptive Reuse is Helping Create the Senior Housing of Tomorrow – Senior Housing News

Book Review: RE-USA 20 american stories of adaptive reuse – UrbDeZine NYC

Re-USA 20 stories book cover

RE–USA: 20 American Stories of Adaptive Reuse A Toolkit for Post-Industrial Cities by Matteo Robiglio, JOVIS Verlag GmbH, 2017

Robiglio analyzed his observations and turned them into an “adaptive reuse toolkit” that can be used by cities but is really addressed to concerned citizens intent on reviving their neighborhoods. Consisting of eight steps and addressed to “you and your family,” the processes outlined are intended to chart a path of redevelopment and acknowledge and build upon the industrial legacy by emphasizing adaptive reuse.

Source: Book Review: RE-USA 20 american stories of adaptive reuse – UrbDeZine NYC

Charlotte is converting an old Model T and missile factory into workspaces – Archpaper.com

Camp North End Charlotte

Experiential passageways for cars and pedestrians will connect to the different buildings on site. (Courtesy S9 Architecture)

ATCO brought on S9 to collaborate on the adaptive reuse of the complex’s 12 main buildings and connect them through experiential passageways. In between each structure, the team will lay out gathering spaces for people to eat, hang out, or put on events.

Source: Charlotte is converting an old Model T and missile factory into workspaces – Archpaper.com

Grain Silos: From Empty Relics to Cultural Landmarks and Luxury Hotels – WSJ

Elevator Alley is a complex of hundreds of grain silos—now filled with breweries, event spaces and more—along the Buffalo River.

Elevator Alley is a complex of hundreds of grain silos—now filled with breweries, event spaces and more—along the Buffalo River. PHOTO: JIM SCHWABEL/ALAMY

In recent years, cultural institutions, visitor bureaus and artists have turned the elevator complexes into money-making attractions, from museums and luxury hotels to shopping venues and art installations.

Source: Grain Silos: From Empty Relics to Cultural Landmarks and Luxury Hotels – WSJ

Sawyer Yards’ 115K SF Adaptive Reuse Expansion Will Create One Of The Country’s Largest Arts Communities

Sawyer Yards' 115K SF Adaptive Reuse Expansion Will Create One Of The Country's Largest Arts Communities

Courtesy of Lovett Commercial Rendering of 1818 Washington St. in Sawyer Yards

Repurposing old buildings continues to be popular in the Inner Loop. The latest sizable one combines two things millennials love — art and breweries.

Source: Sawyer Yards’ 115K SF Adaptive Reuse Expansion Will Create One Of The Country’s Largest Arts Communities

Home renovation: where to start – By Kate Wagner- Curbed

Similarly, it’s a common fallacy that (unless you are renovating your house to passive house energy standards) new windows are more energy efficient or durable than historic ones. First, it will take up to 240 years to recoup enough money from energy savings to pay back the cost of installing replacement windows. Second, let’s be real: New windows are not nearly as good looking. Old windows are very hard to replace, but much easier and often cheaper to restore to modern standards. Finally, no other types of

Source: Home renovation: where to start – Curbed

Inside Ironside: How a Former Newark Warehouse is Being Brought Back to Life | Jersey Digs

Ironside Newark Construction Progress Exterior

Ironside Newark exterior. Photo by Jared Kofsky/Jersey Digs.

“Given the historic nature of the building and the prior uses in the building, we quickly recognized that the bones were irreplaceable and therefore repurposing it for its intended use as loft-style office with street-level retail would be a great second life if you will for the building,” Sommer explained, adding that “we’re seeing a tremendous amount of velocity on both fronts.”

Source: Inside Ironside: How a Former Newark Warehouse is Being Brought Back to Life | Jersey Digs

Demand Rising For Offices In Historic Buildings, But Supply Limited

Demand Rising For Offices In Historic Buildings, But Supply Limited

Bisnow/Julie Littman Bisnow’s Bay Area Construction and Development event held in The Fairmont in San Francisco

“Everyone wants brick and timber, but there is only so much of that and a lot of it’s been taken,” Build Inc. President and partner Lou Vasquez said during Bisnow’s Bay Area Construction and Development event. While the temptation might be to tear down an old building, especially if it costs too much to restore it, there is inherent value in restoration, Vasquez said. “You can’t buy that character. You can’t build that character,” he said.

Source: Demand Rising For Offices In Historic Buildings, But Supply Limited

Adaptive Reuse: Turning Blight into Bright | CCIM Institute

Combating blight and replacing the tax base: Unutilized structures are creating blight in markets across the U.S. And local governments are losing revenue from both declining sales and property taxes as retail stores close and prior growth industries such as financial services contract. How can cities replace lost sales and property tax revenue from closed stores and branch banks? Ironically, the solution is what local communities least understand and most resist: reusing a structure or property. It is a fe

Source: Adaptive Reuse: Turning Blight into Bright | CCIM Institute

House where Rosa Parks lived in Detroit after escaping South up for auction | MLive.com

In this April 6, 2017 photo Rhea McCauley a niece of Rosa Parks poses in front of the rebuilt house of Rosa Parks in Berlin.

“From the viewpoint of art and design, the story of the house and its history since leaving Detroit is a demonstration of the new reach of preservation and the power of creative adaptive reuse,”

Source: House where Rosa Parks lived in Detroit after escaping South up for auction | MLive.com

The Old Main Post Office: Before and After | Chicago magazine | Real Estate & Neighborhoods July 2018

Describing the structure as a “Sleeping Beauty,” Schulze says that the redevelopment of the Old Main Post Office is not only significant for representing a major adaptive reuse and revitalization of one of Chicago’s great buildings, but it’s one that is expected to help breathe new life into the sleepy stretch of the South Loop and West Loop Gate.

Source: The Old Main Post Office: Before and After | Chicago magazine | Real Estate & Neighborhoods July 2018

Cambridge Conversion Project Recognized as Preservation Model – Banker & Tradesman

859 Mass Ave Cambridge

“The restoration and reuse design of 859 Massachusetts Ave. is an inspiring example of community-wide dedication to both preserving history and caring for the future,” Charles Sullivan, executive director of the Cambridge Historical Commission, said in a statement.

Source: Cambridge Conversion Project Recognized as Preservation Model – Banker & Tradesman

Entire Sydney office fitted out with recycled materials and furniture wins sustainability award

The entrance to the office. Photo: Supplied

The entrance to the office. Photo: Supplied

The premises, a previously unused diesel generator room, have indeed become a spectacular showcase for the virtues of salvaging both cast-off plant room space that might otherwise languish, and materials that would have ended up in landfill.

Source: Entire Sydney office fitted out with recycled materials and furniture wins sustainability award

Inside Mercy Housing’s restoration of Building 9 at Magnuson Park – Curbed Seattle

A window bank unearthed during the restoration process.

The building lived many lives before being decommissioned—barracks, courthouse, offices—and like archaeologists, building crews were able to uncover some original building components that had been long covered up. Vinyl flooring had been placed over terrazzo tile in the original mess hall. A utilitarian wall turned out to be hiding a whole bank of historic windows.

Source: Inside Mercy Housing’s restoration of Building 9 at Magnuson Park – Curbed Seattle

Plain English contemporary dream kitchen in a converted London schoolhouse

The main work space is flanked by two satellites: a cloakroom and elevator to the right of the stair, and, on the opposite side, an open panty.

Above: The main work space is flanked by two satellites: a cloakroom and elevator to the right of the stair, and, on the opposite side, an open panty.

The wide-plank flooring is original, newly lightened with a soap and lye finish. The black metal long-armed sconces were designed by the architects.

Source: Plain English contemporary dream kitchen in a converted London schoolhouse

Dreyfuss + Blackford’s historic power station conversion breaks ground in Sacramento – Archpaper.com

(Courtesy Dreyfuss + Blackford)

The adaptive reuse project covers 53,100 square-feet, including 22,800 square-feet of new space, to convert the structure into a Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) center. There will also be a two-story addition that protrudes from the east side of the power station, containing main circulation, classrooms, offices, a café, and a 120-seat planetarium that rises above the building.

Source: Dreyfuss + Blackford’s historic power station conversion breaks ground in Sacramento – Archpaper.com

Brooklyn’s new Domino Park features relics from the old sugar factory | Inhabitat 

Domino Park – Designed by James Corner Field Operations, Domino Park will open June 10.

Set to open to the public on June 10, the park — which was installed with reclaimed relics from the former Domino Sugar Refinery — has been converted into a quarter-mile long stretch of open green space running along the Williamsburg waterfront.

Source: Brooklyn’s new Domino Park features relics from the old sugar factory | Inhabitat – Green Design, Innovation, Architecture, Green Building

Planning Board denies yet another proposal to reuse West Side firehouse | WBFO

MIKE DESMOND / WBFO NEWS

“I’m not a developer. I don’t understand the machinery, the political machinery, to become a developer and make something else out of it,” said Blochoe. “Five previous owners have failed in doing something to this place, if my count is not mistaken, and I have no other plans.”

Source: Planning Board denies yet another proposal to reuse West Side firehouse | WBFO

City industries paved the way for art – SHINE

A Baowu Steel facility in northern Shanghai will be regenerated into an art and education hub, named Shanghai International Art City. Ti Gong

“Keeping the authenticity of the buildings has become a kind of art itself,” said Yongwoo Lee, artistic director of the Shanghai International Art City Research Institute. “Industrial heritage goes far beyond existing architectural recognition with unique standing and image.”

Source: City industries paved the way for art – SHINE

New architecture school brings lessons to life – REMI Network

architecture school

The addition of the L-shaped, two-wing building offers students a study in contrasts between these two modern construction methods, as well as between 19th-century-style timber construction and 21st-century CLT construction. Levitt said CLT was a natural choice considering the importance of timber and wood resources to northern Ontario, although there was little precedent for its institutional application in Canada at the time, much less on this scale.

Source: New architecture school brings lessons to life – REMI Network

Steel Tariffs Just Another Reason Houston Developers Are Looking To Adaptive Reuse Projects

Steel Tariffs Just Another Reason Houston Developers Are Looking To Adaptive Reuse Projects

Pexels

“Adaptive use involves less waste of materials and less need for new building materials like drywall, plaster and concrete, which are highly energy and carbon intensive, even with the most sustainable production methodologies,” Green Generation Solutions CEO Brad Dockser said to ULI. “The ability to reuse windows, walls and ornamentation is critical. And it’s possible to be highly creative. I’ve seen people put an office or a conference room in what used to be a vault. Instead of spending enormous amounts of money”

Source: Steel Tariffs Just Another Reason Houston Developers Are Looking To Adaptive Reuse Projects